Family history as a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease.
Khaleghi, et al. Am J Cardiol. 2014 Sep 15;114(6):928-32.
The association of a family history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with the presence of PAD is largely unknown. We conducted a case-control study of 2,296 patients with PAD (69 ± 10 years, 64% men) and 4,390 controls (66 ± 11 years, 62% men) identified from noninvasive vascular and stress testing laboratories at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from October 2006 through June 2012. PAD was defined as an ankle brachial index of ≤ 0.9 at rest and/or after exercise, a history of lower extremity revascularization, or having poorly compressible leg arteries. Controls were patients with normal ankle brachial index or without a history of PAD. Family history of PAD was defined as having at least 1 first-degree relative who had undergone revascularization or stent placement for PAD before the age of 65 years. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate whether a family history of PAD was associated with the presence of PAD, independent of conventional risk factors. A family history of PAD was present more often in patients with PAD than in controls, with a resulting odds ratio (OR) of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82 to 2.67). The association remained significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.42). The association was stronger in younger subjects (age <68 years; adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.79 to 3.38) than in older subjects (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.12). A greater number of affected relatives with PAD was also associated with greater odds of presence of PAD (adjusted OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.33 and adjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.60 to 4.11 for patients with 1 and ≥ 2 affected relatives with PAD, respectively). In conclusion, individuals with a family history of PAD have nearly double the odds of having PAD relative to those without such a history.